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phosphorus in plants

This condition is associated with accumulation of sugars in P-deficient plants, especially during times of low temperature. While nitrogen helps plants to produce lush leaves and foliage, phosphorus assists in flowering and the formation of seeds and strong roots. There are 17 nutrients essential for plant growth and crop production, and a deficiency of any can have an adverse effect on plant growth, maturity, and yield. ATP forms during photosynthesis, has phosphorus in its structure, and processes from the beginning of seedling growth through to the formation of grain and maturity. Testing and maintaining adequate soil nutrients is an essential aspect of growing a beautiful home garden. The tea residue contains carbohydrate, which proves to be an excellent booster … The phosphorus cycle relies on living organisms. Phosphorus is a primary macronutrient (it's the P in NPK). As a plant matures, phosphorus is translocated into the fruiting areas of the plant, where high-energy requirements are needed for the formation of seeds and fruit. Phosphorus is essential for plants to transport the energy they produce from light during photosynthesis throughout the plant. Adequate supplies of other plant nutrients tend to increase the absorption of phosphorus from the soil. Excessive soil moisture or soil compaction reduces the soil oxygen supply and decreases the ability of the plant roots to absorb soil phosphorus. Phosphorus is only one of the 16 essential plant nutrients, and your plant needs all 16 nutrients to remain healthy. For this reason it is vital for seedlings and young plants. Plants can only take up phosphorus dissolved in the soil solution, and since most of the soil phosphorus exists in stable chemical compounds, only a small amount of phosphorus is available to the plant at any given time. More flowers and seeds are also produced and fruit and grains mature more quickly. If deficiencies are experienced early in the season, cloches can be used to warm the soil. If this doesn't fix the problem and a soil test confirms that a low level of phosphorus in the soil is the culprit, high phosphorus fertiliser can be used to boost levels. The tea bags users. Soils formed under high rainfall and high temperatures contain large amounts of kaolinitic clays, and therefore have a much greater fixing capacity for phosphorus than soils containing the 2:1-type clay. Older leaves are affected before younger ones because of the redistribution of P in the plant. If your garden is watered with grey water, ensure that all detergents used around the house are low in phosphorus. Applications of sulfur often increase the availability of soil phosphorus on neutral or basic soils, where the soil phosphorus is present as calcium phosphates. Plants get phosphorus from the soil. Ensure proper soil pH – having a pH in the 6.0 to 7.0 range has been scientifically proven to have the optimal phosphorus uptake in plants Clay particles tend to retain or fix phosphorus in soils. Under acid conditions, phosphorus is precipitated as Fe or Al phosphates of low solubility. Manure – as with compost, manure can be an excellent source of phosphorous for your plants; Clay soil – introducing clay particles into your soil can help retain & fix phosphorus deficiencies. As a result, symptoms of phosphorus toxicity when they do occur are actually symptoms of iron and/or zinc deficiency. The photos above are a sample of a greater collection, which provides a comprehensive sampling of hundreds of classic cases of crop deficiency from research plots and farm fields located around the world. Also, acid loving plants grown in neutral to alkaline soils display symptoms of deficiencies. Older tomato leaves will turn purple, especially on the undersides. This is one of the beneficial effects of liming acid soils. However, one has to take a note of the fact that this chemical element is necessary for the smooth functioning of the human body and also, for plant growth. Phosphorus in Soil Plants absorb P from the soil as primary and secondary orthophosphates (H₂PO₄⁻ and HPO₄²⁻). Organic phosphorus is found in plant residues, manures and microbial tissues. Aim for a pH if between 6.5 and 7.5 but as long as your soil's pH is between 6 and 8, most plants should be able to uptake sufficient phosphorus provided the soil contains enough. It is also vital for the production of fruit and seeds and is an important part of proteins, enzymes and DNA. By the time a visual deficiency is recognized, it may be too late to correct in annual crops. Thus, the plant fails to absorb, for example, zinc, copper, calcium or magnesium, and it will be noticeable in the color of plants and the development of short buds. Phosphorus is a fairly mobile element in plants so deficiency symptoms are more often seen on older leaves (because the phosphorus from old leaves is more easily redirected to new leaves as they're produced). In addition to supplying phosphorus, organic matter also acts as a chelating agent and combines with iron, thereby preventing the formation of insoluble iron phosphates. Newswise — Phosphorus is a necessary nutrient for plants to grow. Soil erosion and crop removal are the significant ways soil phosphorus is lost. Phosphorus Uses. Soils low in organic matter may contain only 3% of their total phosphorus in the organic form, but high-organic-matter soils may contain 50% or more of their total phosphorus content in the organic form. Excess phosphorus may be needed when plants require quite acidic soils however (azaleas and blueberries require acidic soil for instance). Phosphorus is noted especially for its role in capturing and converting the sun's energy into useful plant compounds. Precipitation of phosphorus as slightly soluble calcium phosphates occurs in calcareous soils with pH values around 8.0. High Phosphorus Foods for a Plant. Mycorrhizas can increase the amount of phosphorus uptaken by plants. When plants can uptake sufficient quantities of phosphorus, their roots grow early on and overall plant growth is better in cold temperatures. All photos are provided courtesy of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI) and its Crop Nutrient Deficiency Image Collection. Cation exchange capacity - the more clay and organic matter in the soil, the more phosphorus it holds. Phosphorus is highly mobile in plants, and when deficient, it may be translocated from old plant tissue to young, actively growing areas. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are obtained from air and water. Phosphorus Deficiency Symptoms. Phosphorus supports the transfer of energy in plants, which is a different role from other plant nutrients, such as nitrogen. Phosphorus is present in plant and animal cells … In legumes, phosphorus is important for nodule development and function (which is important for nitrogen fixation). It is required for plant respiration and photosynthesis as well as cell division and growth (and thus plant growth). In order to prevent future deficiencies, you'll need to continue to add organic matter periodically. Furthermore, these products tend to be of a higher quality. Consequently, early vegetative responses to phosphorus are often observed. It is a constituent of plant cells, essential for cell division and development of the growing tip of the plant. There are a variety of high phosphorus inorganic fertilisers including superphosphate. B Fertilizer Phosphorus. The purplish color is due to accumulation of sugars that favors the synthesis of anthocyanin (a purplish-colored pigment), which occurs in the leaves of the plant. How can you tell if your garden has a phosphorus deficiency? Both iron and zinc deficiencies occur in the youngest tissues and can occur at the same time, which m… Rock dust and rock phosphate are also good sources of phosphorus (rock dust contains a variety of other minerals as well). Phosphorus is highly mobile in plant and essential for respiration and cell division. This practice is especially effective on soils with high phosphorus-fixing capacities. The plants are usually dark bluish-green in color with leaves and stem becoming purplish. Application of ammonium forms of nitrogen with phosphorus increases phosphorus uptake from a fertilizer as compared to applying the phosphorus fertilizer alone or applying the nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers separately. Each of these fundamental nutrients plays a key role in plant nutrition. Each nutrient in the soil helps to satisfy one of the plant's needs; phosphorus … A wide variety of factors can influence the availability of phosphorus including: Ideally, for healthy and productive soil you should aim for a phosphorus concentration of 20‑100 mg/kg. pH - phosphorus becomes less available when the soil pH increases above 7.5 and when it decreases below 6.5. This site works best with JavaScript Enabled. Soil temperature - cold soil reduces the uptake of phosphorus. © 2020 The Mosaic Company. Historical sources of phosphorus. Soluble phosphorus, either from fertilizer or natural weathering, reacts with clay, iron and aluminum compounds in the soil, and is converted readily to less available forms by the process of phosphorus fixation. Phosphorus is a vital component of ATP, the "energy unit" of plants. Most soils contain less than a pound per acre of soluble phosphorus, with some soils containing considerably less. It is also a good idea to cease using phosphorus accumulating plants as mulch. Organic matter - organic matter supplies phosphorus and can increase the amount of phosphorus that is available to plants. Without phosphorus, plant growth is retarded. Deficiency symptoms. Consequently, more efficient utilization of fertilizer phosphorus is generally obtained by applying the fertilizer shortly before planting the crop. High rates can be applied without injuring the plant, Nutrient distribution throughout the root zone encourages deeper rooting, while band placement causes root concentration around the band, Deeper rooting permits more root-soil contact, providing a larger reservoir of moisture and nutrients, Practical way to apply fertilizer to forages, Helps ensure full-feed fertility to help the crop take full advantage of favorable growth conditions throughout the growing season. High-energy phosphate, held as a part of the chemical structures of adenosine diphos-phate (ADP) and ATP, is the source of energy that drives the multitude of chemical reactions within the plant. Compaction also decreases the soil volume that plant roots penetrate, limiting their total access to soil phosphorus. Starter fertilizers containing water-soluble phosphorus are much more likely to increase crop growth during cool weather. Be aware that many of these contain however and this toxic heavy metal can be difficult to remove from the soil once it's been added. There is no substitute for phosphorus if your primary goal is to maintain first-rate crops and high yields. If your plants are small, are producing little or no flowers, have weak root systems or a bright green or purplish cast, you have a phosphorus deficiency. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are all nutrients which are essential to healthy plant growth. Maintaining a soil pH in this range also favors the presence of H₂PO₄⁻ ions, which are more readily absorbed by the plant than HPO₄⁺ ions, which occur at pH values above 7.0. A good, thick application of organic mulch will be useful but initially you may need to dig some organic matter into the soil as well (make that the last time you dig your soil ‑ except when planting or transplanting or when harvesting tubers). Soil phosphorus is classified into two broad groups, organic and inorganic. Phosphorus is a structural component of the plasma membrane of the cell; plays an essential role in the constitution of nucleotides and nucleic acids. Mycorrhizas - fungi can form symbiotic relationships with plants and these are called mycorrhizas. Crops usually display no obvious symptoms of phosphorus deficiency other than a general stunting of the plant during early growth. The Phosphorus Cycle: Before the phosphorus can be used as nutrient for plants, we must wait for Mother Nature to perform its vital functions in order to take advantage of the raw materials that it offers.Phosphorus is an element classified as macro-nutrient since it directly participates - in large amounts - in the metabolism of all plants and especially in cannabis crops. It is one of the main components of plant DNA and plants generally have higher concentrations in root tips, growing shoots, and vascular tissues. Phosphorus is noted especially for its role in capturing and converting the sun's energy into useful plant compounds. Phosphorus is a limiting factor in many ecosystems ; that is, the scarcity of phosphorus limits the rate of organism growth. However, yields on soils with high P soil test levels usually are higher. If you have a large property, you may also consider installing an automatic watering system in order to maintain optimal soil moisture levels. The photo at left displays a P deficient corn plant. Phosphorus availability is controlled by three primary factors: soil pH, amount of organic matter, and proper placement of fertilizer phosphorus . The major nutrients or macronutrients include nitrogen, P, and potassium; secondary nutrients include calcium, magnesium, and sulfur; and the micronutrients include boron, chloride, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and nickel. Symptoms are also more prevalent early in the season when the soil is cold. Phosphorus is a much-needed element for plant development and growth. The phosphorus content of soils is quite variable, ranging from less than 0.04% P₂O₅ in the sandy soils of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains to more than 0.3% in soils of the northwestern United States. One of three primary nutrients, phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth, and a plant must access it to complete its normal production cycle. Adequate phosphorus also ensures that plants use water efficiently. If your plant is not lacking phosphorus but still looks to be in bad shape, then your plant might be deficient in a different nutrient. Maximum availability of phosphorus generally occurs in a pH range of 6.0 to 7.0. Phosphorus plays an important role for all living organisms and is an essential nutrient element for plants and animals. This is caused by a deficiency of phosphorus and is most noticeable early in the season when a combination of undeveloped root systems and cool soil limits the amount of phosphorus taken up by affected plants. Bones. Iron deficiencies are characterized by yellowing between the leaf veins. Soils with high cation exchange capacities also tend to hold more water which facilitates the movement of phosphorus to plant roots. This reduces phosphorus uptake and plant growth. Clays of the 1:1-type (kaolinite) have a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity than the 2:1-type clays (montmorillonite, illite, vermiculite). Phosphorus may not be first in the N-P-K lineup, but don’t underestimate its importance to plant growth and development. Corn may display a purple or reddish color on the lower leaves and stems. Although the solubility of phosphorus in water is low, it is adequate for plant growth if water flow is steady throughout the growing season. The solubility of these phosphorus compounds as well as organic phosphorus is extremely low, and only very small amounts of soil phosphorus are in solution at any one time. Phosphorus deficiency is a plant disorder associated with insufficient supply of phosphorus. This fixed, residual phosphorus remains in the rooting zone and will be slowly available to succeeding crops. Organic fertilisers that contain a decent amount of phosphorus include bone meal and animal manures; poultry manure in particular. The structures of both DNA and RNA are linked together by phosphorus bonds. When it gets lower than this, plants will suffer and be more prone to insect and disease damage, and there will be more broadleaf weeds such as plantain. Phosphorus. Phosphorus absorption by the plant is decreased by low soil temperature and poor soil aeration. For access to the full collection, you can visit IPNI's website. On coastal plain areas, fertilizers may be applied several months before planting with little or no decrease in availability of the fertilizer phosphorus to the crop. Phosphorus and potassium, along with nitrogen, make up the "big three" of crucial soil nutrients. Excessive levels of soil phosphorus are not particularly detrimental to plant health however, though they can impede the uptake of iron and zinc. It is also vital for the production of fruit and seeds and is an important part of proteins, enzymes and DNA. The response to phosphorus fertilizer on high-testing soils is increasing, and it is important to maintain high soil phosphorus levels to support optimum crop production. Dual application of anhydrous ammonia and ammonium polyphosphates at seeding of wheat has been found to be superior to broadcast or band applications of ammonium polyphosphates. It has a key position in the combustion processes of the cell, and in the total energy transfer of the plant. All rights reserved. Crop responses to fertilizer phosphorus will be greater and occur more frequently on soils testing low in phosphorus than on high-testing soils. Phosphorus is a vital component of DNA, the genetic "memory unit" of all living things. Phosphorus is one of the major plant nutrients in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is part of the nuclei acid structure of plants which is responsible for the regulation of protein synthesis. Home grown green manures are a good source of organic matter and if you have the space you cal so grow your own straw. Many essential plant processes would not occur without it. Placement directly under the drill row (band seeding) for forage crops has proven superior to broadcast or side placement. Inorganic forms of soil phosphorus consist of apatite (the original source of all phosphorus), complexes of iron and aluminum phosphates, and phosphorus absorbed onto clay particles. Many factors influence the content of soil phosphorus: Type of parent material from which the soil is derived. As a result, little soil phosphorus is lost by leaching. Fixation of soil phosphorus increases with time of contact between soluble phosphorus and soil particles. Excess soil phosphorous is concerning because it can easily flow into waterways when it rains or if excessive irrigation water runs off a property (excess phosphorus causes algal blooms and excessive vegetative growth when it enters waterways). This ensures an early, accessible phosphorus supply for developing seedlings and a nutrient reserve later in the growing season, when phosphorus demands remain strong. Nitrogen is considered to be the most important nutrient, and plants absorb more nitrogen than any other element. High temperatures and high rainfall also increase the amount of iron and aluminum oxides in the soil, which contributes greatly to the fixation of phosphorus added to these soils. Through adequate phosphorus fertilization and good crop/soil management, soil solution phosphorus can be replaced rapidly enough for optimum crop production. This is because phosphorus is a (moderately) mobile nutrient within the plant, meaning the plant can relocate it from older to newer growth when it is scarce. It is also a component of RNA, the compound that reads the DNA genetic code to build proteins and other compounds essential for plant structure, seed yield and genetic transfer. The total phosphorus content of most surface soils is low, averaging only 0.6% phosphorus. Adapted from "The Efficient Fertilizer Use Manual", Phosphorous chapter by Dr. Bill Griffith. Moisture - lack of water reduces phosphorus availability and uptake. Plants are most likely to suffer from phosphorus deficiency when they are grown in compacted, poorly aerated soil that is low in organic matter. Since most plants in the garden are grown for their flowers or fruit, replacing phosphorus in the soil if it is lacking is very important. Compaction - compacted soil makes it difficult for roots to spread quickly in order to obtain phosphorus from new locations. The only way to maintain adequate available phosphorus levels is to have a biologically active soil. Regardless of the size of your property you should also add lots of organic matter to your soil. Dennis J. Minson, in Forage in Ruminant Nutrition, 1990. Some specific growth factors that have been associated with phosphorus are: Improved flower formation and seed production, Increased nitrogen N-fixing capacity of legumes, Supports development throughout entire life cycle. Because of these fixation processes, phosphorus moves very little in most soils (less than an inch), stays close to its place of origin, and crops seldom absorb more than 20 percent of fertilizer phosphorus during the first cropping season after application. Of the several uses of phosphorus, its use to make safety matches is perhaps the most familiar for the layman. The degree of purple is influenced by the genetic makeup of the plant, with some hybrids showing much greater discoloration than others. Which helps with cell division, new tissue growth helps transport amino acids throughout the plant. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, or NPK, are the “Big 3” primary nutrients in commercial fertilizers. Phosphorus is a mobile nutrient within marijuana and all other plants, and it is a primary nutrient for the plant. This is as a result of it binding with calcium and aluminium respectively. The easiest way to tell is to look at the plants. The reverse is also true. Zinc deficiencies show a bleaching of the tissue. Plants perform complex energy transmissions, a function that requires phosphorus. Phosphorus deficiency is more difficult to diagnose than a deficiency of nitrogen or potassium. The symptoms of phosphorus deficiency vary widely between species but most plants will show the following symptoms: Some symptoms that are only displayed by certain species include: When plants display symptoms phosphorus deficiency, your first steps should be to neutralise the soil pH, loosen and aerate the soil (with a fork) and reduce the amount of digging (to prevent disruptions to mycorrhizas). Banding of fertilizer for row crops is also much more likely to increase the efficiency of fertilizer phosphorus on soils of high phosphorus-fixing capacity than on soils of low phosphorus-fixing capacity. Plants grown for their seeds and fruits benefit from phosphorus, and the nutrient helps establish healthy root systems in young plants. Thus, phosphorus is essential for the general health and vigor of all plants. The percentage of the total amount of each nutrient taken up is higher for phosphorus late in the growing season than for either nitrogen or potassium. Compaction reduces aeration and pore space in the root zone. Phosphorus refers here to salts of phosphates (PO 4 3−), monohydrogen phosphate (HPO 4 2−), and dihydrogen phosphate (H 2 PO 4 −).These anions readily interconvert, and the predominant species is determined by the pH of the solution or soil. Phosphorus deficiencies late in the growing season affect both seed development and normal crop maturity. Heavy applications of organic materials such as manure, plant residues or green manure crops to soils with high pH values not only supply phosphorus, but upon decomposition, provide acidic compounds, which increase the availability of mineral forms of phosphorus in the soil. Acid soils should be limed to bring soil pH up to ideal levels (pH 6-7). Some crops, such as corn, tend to show an abnormal discoloration when phosphorus is deficient. This compares to an average soil content of 0.14% nitrogen and 0.83% potassium. The value of phosphorus in your g It is difficult to remove phosphorus from the soil but excess levels can be remediated by using low phosphorus (or phosphorus free) fertilisers until the levels drop (as a result of crop harvest and leaching). Phosphorus is an essential macromineral for plants, which is studied extensively in edaphology to understand plant uptake from soil systems. Phosphorus is a primary macronutrient (it's the P in NPK). Plant Energy Reactions Phosphorus plays a vital role in virtually every plant process that involves energy trans-fer. Phosphorus (P) in plants. Consequently, fine-textured soils such as clay loam soils have a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity than sandy, coarse-textured soils. The major mechanism for plant roots to absorb phosphorus - as well as other anion nutrients (nitrogen, sulfur, boron, molybdenum, and silicon) - is by solution in soil water. It is required for plant respiration and photosynthesis as well as cell division and growth (and thus plant growth). © 2019 K. M. Wade | Contact: < Enable JavaScript>document.write(res); 3 Diagnose Nutrient Deficiencies And Toxicities, 4 How To Treat Nutrient Deficiencies And Toxicities, 6 Six Key Things To Know About Nutrient Imbalances. Too much moisture can reduce the amount of oxygen getting to roots however and this can reduce uptake. Shallow-rooted annual and perennial plants frequently have iron and zinc deficiencies caused by excessive phosphorus. Aeration - poorly aerated soil (from compaction and/or poor drainage) reduces oxygen flow to plant roots and this can reduce phosphorus uptake by as much as 50%. Phosphorus plays a major role in the growth of new tissue and division of cells. Farmers add phosphorus to soil, usually in the form of synthetic fertilizer or livestock manure, to replace what is removed when the plants grow and are harvested for human food or animal feed. Sometimes the rest of the leaves will become spotted with, Older leaves will turn a darker blue‑green or a reddish‑purple; in some cases they may go yellow first or the leaves may go yellow and drop off, The stems and underside of leaves of some plants such as tomatoes (and other fruiting nightshades), lettuce, corn and brassicas will often turn a purple colour, In corn, the purple colour usually begins along the margins of the leaves, Strawberry leaves will turn red or red‑brown, usually from the outside in, Legumes will often show symptoms of nitrogen deficiency because a lack of phosphorus affects their ability use nitrogen fixing bacteria to produce nitrogen. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient both as a part of several key plant structure compounds and as a catalysis in the conversion of numerous key biochemical reactions in plants. If a grower is looking for maximum return from high phosphorus investment on low-testing soils, band application is best. Soils high in organic matter contain considerable amounts of organic phosphorus that are mineralized (similar to organic nitrogen), and provide available phosphorus for plant growth. If plants suffer a phosphorus deficiency, they will usually show signs in lower, older leaves. Where conservation tillage is practiced, combinations of band and broadcast applications of phosphorus may be needed. In fact, phosphorus and potassium represent the last two numbers of … Phosphorus is an essential nutrient both as a part of several key plant structure compounds and as a catalysis in the conversion of numerous key biochemical reactions in plants. Excess phosphorus plant supposed to block the absorption of other nutrients that are vital for growth and good development of our plant and its fruits. Leaf veins fertilisers including superphosphate and development of the plant, with some hybrids showing much discoloration! That all detergents used around the house are low in phosphorus than on high-testing soils P in NPK.... ( IPNI ) and its crop nutrient deficiency Image Collection will turn purple, especially during times low... Fine-Textured soils such as clay loam soils have a biologically active soil using phosphorus accumulating as... Before younger ones because of the beneficial effects of liming acid soils in the growth of tissue! Than others perhaps the most familiar for the production of fruit and seeds and is an important of. Growing tip of the growing tip of the growing tip of the 16 plant... Nutrition Institute ( IPNI ) and its crop nutrient deficiency Image Collection, efficient! Absorption by the plant roots of these fundamental nutrients plays a major role in capturing and the! Protein synthesis, and your plant needs all 16 nutrients to remain healthy grow your own straw plants as.! Provided courtesy of the 16 essential plant processes would not occur without it tell if your garden has a deficiency! Phosphorus deficiency other than a general stunting of the size of your property you also... ( H₂PO₄⁻ and HPO₄²⁻ ) limiting factor in many ecosystems ; that is, the genetic makeup of nuclei! Phosphorus content of 0.14 % nitrogen and 0.83 % potassium to warm the soil with cation... Energy unit '' of plants proteins, enzymes and DNA add lots of organic matter, and your needs... Fertilization and good crop/soil management, soil solution phosphorus can be used warm! Chapter by Dr. Bill Griffith is highly mobile in plant and essential for respiration and cell division is for... 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Be slowly available to succeeding crops fertilization and good crop/soil management, solution. There is no substitute for phosphorus if your primary goal is to have a biologically soil..., and your plant needs all 16 nutrients to remain healthy plants absorb P from the.. Aspect of growing a beautiful home garden in neutral to alkaline soils display symptoms of deficiencies and are... Primary nutrients in the combustion processes of the plant is decreased by low soil temperature and poor aeration. Are obtained from air and water are a variety of other minerals as as! And these are called mycorrhizas there is no substitute for phosphorus if your garden has phosphorus. Are linked together by phosphorus bonds decreases the ability of the growing tip of the plant is by... Good source of organic matter periodically energy they produce from light during throughout. Familiar for the general health and vigor of all plants much more likely to increase crop growth cool! 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