Our page is about Health Benefits of Amaranth, Kikuyu: Terere Kisii/ Luhyia: Libokoi; Luo: Ododo; Swahili: Mchicha. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweeds. In the United States, A. palmeri has been ranked as one of the most troublesome weeds of various crops, especially cotton, maize and soybean (Ward et al., 2013). , Palmer amaranth may be the most aggressive pigweed species with respect to growth rate and competitive ability. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Tucson, Arizona, USA: The University of Arizona Press. The leaves exhibit diaheliotropic movements, which helps the species to have high photosynthetic capacity. Amaranthus palmeri (Amaranth) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a native North American weed also known as careless weed, is recognized as one of the most troublesome weed species in the southern and southwestern United States (Webster, 2001).Palmer amaranth is a short-lived, summer annual plant that readily invades croplands (Steyermark, 1963). It has become one of the most widespread, troublesome, and economically damaging agronomic weeds in the southeastern U.S. A. palmeri is an erect, branching, summer annual that usually grows from 6-8 ft (1.8-2.4 m) tall. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Manual control is recommended in the absence of herbicides, when the plants have not reached the reproductive stage and before using machinery. American Journal of Botany, 55(1), 20-26. doi: 10.2307/2440487. Euro+Med, 2019. It can be a serious weed of rice cultivation in Asia. Amaranthus palmeri is similar to A. tuberculatus, A. retroflexus and A. hybridus, all native species of North America. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. A 2-yr field study was conducted to compare the growth of Amaranthus palmeri, A. rudis, A. retroflexus, and A. albus planted in June and July. This reference perhaps takes into consideration the presence of the species in the Dominican Republic in 1929 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019); nevertheless most of the references worldwide consider the species to be native only to North America. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. At sublethal levels, abortion, depression of lactation, digestive disturbances, myocardial degeneration and renal disease may occur (Kingsbury, 1964; Bryson and DeFelice, 2010). It has several common names, including carelessweed, dioecious amaranth, Palmer's amaranth, Palmer amaranth, and Palmer's pigweed. Online Database. A Northern Arizona homeowner's guide to identifying and managing invasive plants. Its arrival in South America by the first part of the 2000s is also related to crop production (De Andrade et al., 2015). Livestock-poisoning plants of Arizona, [ed. Some cultural and sanitary measures recommended for the eradication of A. palmeri include: crop rotations, alternating herbicide usage; reducing the space between the planted crops and using crop varieties with a high reproductive rate. The … For example, in Georgia, USA, cotton growers have spent more than 110 million US dollars annually in the control of A. palmeri (Webster and Gray, 2015).  The male produces the pollen and the female plant produces the seed.  Palmer amaranth in particular is highly competitive. A. palmeri has been reported as spreading through agricultural practices (Ward et al., 2013). Group G/9 herbicides are known as EPSP synthase inhibitors (Inhibition of EPSP synthase). Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Flowering can occur throughout the year although most of it occurs during the summer months. Weed Technology, 15(3), 408-412. doi: 10.1614/0890-037X(2001)015[0408:CIOPAA]2.0.CO;2, Morichetti S, Cantero JJ, Núñez C, Barboza GE, Espinar LA, Amuchastegui A, Ferrell J, 2013. Maize yield has been reported to be reduced 11-91% with A. palmeri densities of 0.5 to 9 plants/m row (Massinga et al., 2001). Research was conducted during 2010 and 2011 to determine if Palmer amaranth control and soybean yield were affected by soybean plant population and combinations of … It is considered the most invasive species of the dioecious amaranths and is ranked as one of the most troublesome weeds of various crops in the United States. Catkin-like cymes of densely packed flowers grow in summer or autumn. Amaranthus palmeri Taxonomy ID: 107608 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid107608) current name Amaranthus palmeri in Kew Science Plants of the World online. Although native to areas with high temperatures and low precipitation, its phenotypic plasticity has allowed A. palmeri to spread into areas of lower temperatures and higher altitudes (Ward et al., 2013). At higher spatial scales, the implementation of coordinated screening efforts at multiple stages in the feed machinery transport chains is needed to detect contamination by seeds of A. palmeri (Davis et al., 2015; EPPO, 2019). Links . CABI is a registered EU trademark. Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri) has been a foraged food for a long time. Oecologia, 57, 107-112. Biotypes with glyphosate resistance are becoming more common (Ward et al., 2013). The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Steckel LE, 2007. (Video informativo sobre el Amaranthus palmeri). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 96, 304-309. Ecophysiology of Amaranthus palmeri, a Sonoran Desert summer annual. Seeds germinate best under natural light (Ward et al., 2013). 1913. There was a significant reduction in the number of pollen grains found in acetolyzed adults … Amaranthus palmeri is used by indigenous populations in the United States, including the Cocopa, Navajo, Pima, Yuma and Mohave (Steckel, 2007; Ward et al., 2013). 2.5 kg/ha of seeds broadcasted evenly on the beds after mixing with 10 parts of sand. Various rodents and birds, including Charadrius vociferus and ducks, consume the seeds (Ward et al., 2013). The base temperature for germination is 17°C, although germination can occur at 5-35°C (Steinmaus et al., 2000). Weed Science, 35(3), 328-332. In addition, the seed is spread by traditional means, such as harvesting, inadequate cleaning of equipment, and the spreading of infested materials, such as manure. Poisoning may occur when livestock graze pastures containing an abundance of Amaranthus. Crop yield reduction is reported for soybean up to 68% with A. palmeri density of 10 plants/m of row length (Klingaman and Oliver, 1994), and for cotton of up to 92% at 0.9 plants/m2 (Rowland et al., 1999). In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1, GRIIS, 2019. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 15(4), 595-606. Encyclopedia of Life, 2019. About 90% of the seeds will germinate during the next year and 10% over a four-year period (Barber et al., 2015). Pest Management Science. A quantitative assay for Amaranthus palmeri identification. Acclimation of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) to shading. It slowly infiltrated the southeast United States and has become one of the most significant weed pests of cotton and soybean producers. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.www.worldfloraonline.org, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. 3 (1), 170044. Interference and control of glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) populations under greenhouse conditions. The presence of oxalates in A. palmeri can also be harmful to livestock (Saunders and Becker, 1984). Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Peterson, D. E., 1999. https://www.grainsa.co.za/upload/Plan-for-eradication-of-the-Palmer-Amaranth-in-SA.pdf, Crow, W. D., Steckel, L. E., Hayes, R. M., Mueller, T. C., 2015. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Alien plants of Belgium, 2019. About 75-85% of the seeds produced each year are lost either to predation or over low temperatures during the winter. Some ant species that forage the seeds include Pheidole ridicula, P. absurda and Solenopsis invicta (Ward et al., 2013; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019). , Because of its toxicity to livestock, and scarce familiarity in the United States with the uses of amaranths as food, Palmer amaranth is rarely consumed as of 2020, despite its ubiquity and resistance to drought. Although this species can be used as forage it can be poisonous to livestock due to the high concentrations of nitrates present (Schmutz et al., 1974; Burrows and Tyrl, 2013). (Sobre la presencia de Amaranthus palmeri (Amaranthaceae) en Argentina). More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/.  As a result, the primary economic importance of Palmer amaranth to American farmers has been as a noxious weed and a competitor to more marketable crops, rather than as a crop in its own right. 2019. Recent migration and evolution of the dioecious amaranths. Weed Technology, 27(1), 85-91. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-11-00144.1, Morgan, G. D., Baumann, P. A., Chandler, J. M., 2001. There are no pictures available for this datasheet, Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019, Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers), Debris and waste associated with human activities, University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, 2019, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2019, https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA2177.pdf, http://poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu/php/plants.php?action=display, https://www.grainsa.co.za/upload/Plan-for-eradication-of-the-Palmer-Amaranth-in-SA.pdf, https://www.gub.uy/ministerio-ganaderia-agricultura-pesca/politicas-y-gestion/yuyo-colorado-amaranthus-palmeri, https://www.mda.state.mn.us/plants/pestmanagement/weedcontrol/noxiouslist/palmeramaranth, http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-23722013000200016, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Accidental introduction from shipping (no details given). Leaves: long-petiolate; blade obovate or rhombic-obovate to elliptic proximally, sometimes lanceolate distally, 1.5-7 × 1-3.5 cm, base broadly to narrowly cuneate, margins entire, plane, apex subobtuse to acute, usually with terminal mucro. 1192 pp. Mechanism of extreme genetic recombination in weedy Amaranthus hybrids. To eradicate the species, a combination of various methods, including using herbicides, manual and mechanical removal, implementing sanitary procedures, using cover crops, tillage and applying crop rotations is proposed. Weeds of the midwestern United States and central Canada, Athens, Georgia, USA: University of Georgia Press.468 pp. Weed Technology, 27(1), 12-27. doi: 10.1614/WT-D-12-00113.1, Webster, T. M., Grey, T. L., 2015. The dioecious species are included in the subgenus Acnida, all native to North America (Steckel, 2007). The species is also reported as being dispersed through seed mixes used for habitat restoration (Murphy et al., 2017). 2001 Sida 19:931--974, 975--992; Sauer 1967 Ann Missouri Bot Gard … III. For example, for cotton fields, residual herbicides such as linuron, diuron or flumioxazin activated through precipitation or irrigation are used. Seed rate. EPPO Global database. Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus. The leaves are cooked and used as a vegetable and the seeds are ground into meal for food by the Navajo and Yuma tribes (Sauer, 1957). Weed Technology, 21(2), 567-570. The following description is from Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019) and World Flora Online (2019): Dioecious plants, glabrous or nearly so. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/. It is cited as native for all of the USA (USDA-NRCS, 2019). Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. CropLife, 2019. Evaluation of POST-harvest herbicide applications for seed prevention of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Various preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides are recommended for use on A. palmeri (Ward et al., 2013; Cahoon et al., 2015; Wiggins et al., 2015). It is drought tolerant but prefers moist soils (PFAF, 2019). Euro+Med, 2019. Amaranthus palmeri in Flora of North America . Journal of Coastal Conservation. Host plants of Taylorilygus pallidulus and Polymerus basalis (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) management in dicamba-resistant cotton. Burrows GE, Tyrl RJ, 2013. A. palmeri outcompetes other species by a combination of various advantageous characteristics, such as resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides, high photosynthetic rate, its continued emergence and fast growth, prolific seed production, large biomass produced and the release of allelopathic compounds. Palmer amaranth is among the "top five most troublesome weeds" in the southeast of the United States and has already evolved resistances to dinitroaniline herbicides and acetolactate synthase inhibitors. Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is a dicot weed in the Amaranthaceae family. Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herb native to northwestern Mexico, the south of California into New Mexico and Texas in the United States (Ward et al., 2013). Palmer amaranth considerably exceeded common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis), redroot pigweed (A. retroflexus), and other Amaranthus species in height, dry weight, and leaf area in comparative growth analyses conducted under field conditions in Kansas (Horak and Loughin, 2000) and Missouri (Sellers et al, 2003). Anastasiu, P, Negrean, G, Samoilǎ, C, Memedemin, D, Cogǎlniceanu, D, 2011. Zero tolerance: a community-based program for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth management. Invasive weed mainly of agricultural lands, As a contaminant in Conservation Reserve Program seeding mixes, Sources differ as to whether it is present, In fields used to cultivate cotton, soybean and corn, Accidental introduction, from shipping (no details given). Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Papers overview. Amaranthus palmeri is reported as one of the most competitive weeds of crops in the United States (Morgan et al., 2001; Norsworthy et al., 2008; Webster and Gray, 2015).  In 2001, Palmer amaranth was found in the southern quarter of Illinois and appeared to be moving to northern Illinois in 2006. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Ribeiro, D. N., Pan, Z. Q., Duke, S. O., Nandula, V. K., Baldwin, B. S., Shaw, D. R., Dayan, F. E., 2014. In Delaware this weed first evolved multiple resistance (to 2 herbicide sites of action) in 2014 and infests Soybean. EPPO Global database. Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson Steve Hurst - USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database - Not copyrighted image Foto visualizzata 324 volte. Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Plants Profile- Amaranthus L[Assad, R., Reshi, Z. Its range is also predicted to expand as a result of climate change (Kistner and Hatfield, 2018). Populations in the eastern United States are … In: Tropicos database. , In 2014, North Dakota State University's "ND Weed Control Guide" selected Amaranthus palmeri, as "weed-of-the-year" to raise awareness about its "potentially devastating impact. Amaranthus tuberculatus, Amaranthus hybridus, and Amaranthus palmeri are agronomically important weed species. J Cotton Sci 12:306–310 Google Scholar Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. Plants For A Future Database. This should be followed up for 4-5 years to be successful. Fayettville, Arkansas, USA: University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service.https://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA2177.pdf, Berger, S. T., Ferrell, J. Plant Cell. A qPCR assay has been developed to detect the presence of this species in a mix of Amaranthus spp. by Schmutz EM, Freeman BN, Reed RE]. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) damage niche in Illinois soybean is seed limited. (2017). A. palmeri can also suppress the growth of crops through allelopathy (EPPO, 2019). It became a major agricultural weed in the southern Great Plains by the late 1990s (Horak, 1997), and now infests at least 750,000 acres of co… The implementation of Zero Tolerance areas is recommended for the total eradication of A. palmeri (Barber et al., 2015; Crow et al., 2015; CropLife, 2019; EPPO, 2019). http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed, Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. This species was reported Amaranthus palmeri is an annual herbaceous plant that is spreading rapidly beyond its native range in North America. Improved sanitary measures need to be implemented, including cleaning machinery to prevent seed dispersal between fields. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://alienplantsbelgium.be/. Circular Técnica, Rondonópolis, Brazil: Instituto Mato-grossense do Algodão (IMAmt) (19), 8 pp. Amaranthus Palmeri - Princely House, Moi Avenue (Next to Mt. Also, this plant can survive in tough conditions. Planta, 239(1), 199-212. doi: 10.1007/s00425-013-1972-3. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. Madagascar is also susceptible, as are countries of central and eastern Asia, the Middle East and the Caribbean. The wind carries the pollen from resistant male plants to female plants. For plots where the species is detected, all equipment and machinery should be treated as if contaminated and properly sanitized (CropLife, 2019). Weed Science, 49(2), 202-208. doi: 10.1614/0043-1745(2001)049[0202:IOPAIC]2.0.CO;2. Nutritional properties of native plants and traditional foods from the central United States. http://www.eol.org, EPPO, 2019. The resistance of A. palmeri to glyphosate is a major concern for crop producers worldwide, as this herbicide is widely used for general weed control agricultural fields (Ward et al., 2013). The impact of herbicide-resistant weeds on Kansas agriculture. Reference: Costea et al. Montevideo, Uruguay: https://www.gub.uy/ministerio-ganaderia-agricultura-pesca/politicas-y-gestion/yuyo-colorado-amaranthus-palmeri, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, 2019. Amaranthus: a potential food and feed resource. Weed Science, 61(2), 259-266. doi: 10.1614/WS-D-12-00063.1, Cornell University, 2019. Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus. This species significantly affects the growth and yield of crops due to its resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides, its continual plant emergence, fast growth, prolific seed production and large biomass (Wise et al., 2009; Ward et al., 2013; Cahoon et al., 2015; EPPO, 2019). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Cahoon, C. W., York, A. C., Jordan, D. L., Everman, W. J., Seagroves, R. W., Culpepper, A. S., Eure, P. M., 2015. In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium , Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium.http://alienplantsbelgium.be/. Weed Science, 42(4), 523-527. Competitive impact of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) development and yield. Cereal trade, Seen for the first time in Lleida, Cataluna at the margin of a maize field. In the absence of competition, seed production for A. palmeri is over 600,000 seeds per female plant (Keeley, Carter, & Thullen, 1987). There are several reports of the dispersal of A. palmeri to areas or countries through contaminated grains or agricultural practices (Ward et al., 2013; De Andrade et al., 2015; EPPO, 2019). Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants.Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweed. Climate change models predict future increases in temperatures can expand the range of the species northward into portions of Canada and Europe (Kistner and Hatfield, 2018). Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson (Amaranto di Palmer) USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Weed Science, 56(5), 729-734. doi: 10.1614/WS-07-203.1, Jhala, A. J., Sandell, L. D., Rana, N., Kruger, G. R., Knezevic, S. Z., 2014. Title Flora of N. America Publication Author Website seeds (Murphy et al., 2017). The plant is self-fertile. Snodgrass, G. L., Scott, W. P., Smith, J. W., 1984. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Populations in the eastern United States are probably … In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. Light availability affects germination as plants growing in the shade produce seeds with a lower germination success than plants growing in full sun (Ward et al., 2013). USDA Nutrient Database", "Cereals, whole wheat hot natural cereal, cooked with water, without salt. Sowing can be done throughout the year. Various countries are making available early warning documentation to educate the general public about the implications of an invasion of A. palmeri. Epub 2020 Apr 23. doi: 10.4102/abc.v47i1.2100, Jha, P., Norsworthy, J. K., Riley, M. B., Bielenberg, D. G., Bridges, W., Jr., 2008. Seed production via apomixis has been reported by Ribeiro et al. Links . Tropicos database. 2017. Small mammals, such as rodents, as well as birds are reported as seed dispersers of A. palmeri (Ward et al., 2013). Hybridization is widely reported in the genus, but hybrids with A. palmeri have been reported to be nonviable or sterile (Steinau et al., 2003; Ward et al., 2013). The role of harbours. Department of Animal Science - Plants poisonous to livestock. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Prev Next Pause Resume. USA: The University of Arizona Cooperative Extension, Coconino County.https://www.nazinvasiveplants.org/, USDA-ARS, 2019. Further, ABA content was significantly higher and GA content significantly lower in seeds from shaded (47% reduction in light) than in those from nonshaded (0% reduction in light) plants ( Jha et al. Amaranthus palmeri. 2.5 kg/ha of seeds broadcasted evenly on the beds after mixing with 10 parts of sand. Pistillate flowers: tepals 1.7-3.8 mm, apex acuminate, mucronulate; style branches spreading; stigmas 2(-3). 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